Inversion - moving your headquarters to avoid taxes - lets businesses buy smaller competitors overseas. So what?
It costs a lot of money to move entire offices. At least that's what Texas Governor Rick Perry is learning - as his expensive trips to court companies based elsewhere have yielded few results.
Texas seems to want more businesses based within its borders. But even the litany of tax breaks that Perry can offer aren't always enough to off-set the expense of a costly relocation, and the vast majority of job creation usually comes when companies add on to their existing facilities, rather than abandoning them to make a move.
According to Dealbook, when Applied Materials (AMAT) and Tokyo Electron (OTC:TOELF) chose the Netherlands as their headquarters, they had more on their mind than finding neutral territory. In fact, if you look closer at some of the major mergers and acquisitions this year - you'll notice that many of them are basing their operations in tax-friendly havens, often a long way from where the companies were founded.
Businesses have sought tax havens for as long as they've existed. And once upon a time, it wasn't even all that hard. All you had to do was open an office somewhere with lower taxes - say, the Cayman Islands or Bermuda - and then reincorporate there.
The process is known within the industry as inversion:It's a popular way to bring down costs. Companies that inverted often save about a hundred million dollars a year. This is considerably more than the cost of maintaining a mostly empty office.
As might be expected, the US government doesn't always take too kindly to tax shelters. And since the first major corporate inversion by McDermott Inc. (MDR) in 1982, Congress has passed multiple laws trying to restrict a company's ability to move overseas:It wasn't until the Jobs Act of 2004 that corporations could only re-incorporate to a place where they practiced "significant business activity." When that wasn't enough, the IRS put a number on it - a company must have at least a quarter of its assets somewhere for a re-location to be legal.
Not to be daunted by a new regulation savvy CEOs found another way. By buying a smaller company, they could cross the threshold needed to appease the IRS, expand their operations, and save money in the process. Part of the reason Omnicom (OMC) dubbed their decision to merge with a smaller company a "merger of equals" is that it would save over $80 million a year by moving to Europe.
And two American healthcare companies, Perrigo (PRGO) and Actavis (ACT), have bought smaller Irish healthcare rivals outright, moves that allowed them to enjoy Dublin's lower taxes.
So can you use an inversion investment strategy for your own portfolio? We compiled a list of companies that have bought out smaller rivals and reduced their tax bill in the process.
It's still too early to gauge whether these were major expansions or a simple act of penny pinching. Congress will probably consider more legislation to protect their tax revenues in the future (assuming they get back to legislating in the first place). However, it will be hard to prevent companies from avoiding more taxes without making it difficult for anyone to go multinational at all.
Are these companies buying smaller rivals simply to appease the IRS, or are there more ambitious plans afoot? Tell us what you think.
Click on the interactive chart to see analyst ratings over time.
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Do you follow mergers and acquisitions as part of your investment strategy? Use the list below as a starting point for your own analysis.
1.Applied Materials Inc. (AMAT, Earnings, Analysts, Financials):Provides manufacturing equipment, services, and software to the semiconductor, flat panel display, solar photovoltaic (PV), and related industries worldwide. Market cap at $17.44B, most recent closing price at $17.50.
2.Eaton Corporation (ETN, Earnings, Analysts, Financials):Operates as a power management company worldwide. Market cap at $32.13B, most recent closing price at $65.90.
3.Perrigo Co. (PRGO, Earnings, Analysts, Financials):Develops, manufactures, and distributes over-the-counter (OTC) and generic prescription (Rx) pharmaceuticals, nutritional products, infant formulas, active pharmaceutical ingredients (API), and pharmaceutical and medical diagnostic products worldwide. Market cap at $12.09B, most recent closing price at $128.18.
4.Actavis, Inc. (ACT, Earnings, Analysts, Financials):Engages in developing, manufacturing, marketing, selling, and distributing generic, branded generic, brand, biosimilar, and over-the-counter pharmaceutical products worldwide. Market cap at $18.28B, most recent closing price at $139.80.
5.Ingersoll-Rand Plc (IR, Earnings, Analysts, Financials):Engages in the design, manufacture, sale, and service of a portfolio of industrial and commercial products in the United States and internationally. Market cap at $18.27B, most recent closing price at $62.82.
6.Aon Corporation (AON, Earnings, Analysts, Financials):Provides risk management, insurance and reinsurance brokerage, and human resource consulting and outsourcing services in the United States and internationally. Market cap at $22.91B, most recent closing price at $71.38.
7.Omnicom Group Inc. (OMC, Earnings, Analysts, Financials):Provides advertising, marketing, and corporate communications services. Market cap at $15.88B, most recent closing price at $61.99.
8.Transocean Ltd. (RIG, Earnings, Analysts, Financials):Provides offshore contract drilling services for oil and gas wells worldwide. Market cap at $15.99B, most recent closing price at $44.40.
(List compiled by James Dennin. Analyst ratings sourced from Zacks Investment Research. All other data sourced from Finviz.)
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Analyze These Ideas: Getting StartedRead descriptions for all companies mentioned Access a performance overview for all stocks in the list Compare analyst ratings for the companies mentioned Compare analyst ratings to annual returns for stocks mentioned Real-Time Opinion: Scan the latest tweets about these companies (feed will open in a new window)
Dig Deeper: Access Company Snapshots, Charts, FilingsApplied Materials Inc.(AMAT, Chart, Download SEC Filings) Eaton Corporation(ETN, Chart, Download SEC Filings) Perrigo Co.(PRGO, Chart, Download SEC Filings) Actavis, Inc.(ACT, Chart, Download SEC Filings) Ingersoll-Rand Plc(IR, Chart, Download SEC Filings) Aon Corporation(AON, Chart, Download SEC Filings) Omnicom Group Inc.(OMC, Chart, Download SEC Filings) Transocean Ltd.(RIG, Chart, Download SEC Filings)
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